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Septic Tank Repair And Replacement. Print Bookmark
 
   

Septic tank above ground.
A septic tank is a key component of the septic system, a small-scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes provided by local governments or private corporations.

Other components, typically mandated and/or restricted by local governments, optionally include pumps, alarms, sand filters, and clarified liquid effluent disposal means such as a septic drain field, ponds, natural stone fiber filter plants or peat moss beds. Septic systems are a type of On-Site Sewage Facility (OSSF). In Canada, approximately 25% of the population relies on septic tanks; this can include suburbs and small towns as well as rural areas.

   
Periodic preventive maintenance is required to remove the irreducible solids that settle and gradually fill the tank, reducing its efficiency. In most jurisdictions this maintenance is required by law, yet often not enforced. Those who ignore the requirement will eventually be faced with extremely costly repairs when solids escape the tank and destroy the clarified liquid effluent disposal means. A properly maintained system, on the other hand, can last for decades or possibly even a lifetime.
   

A septic tank generally consists of a tank (or sometimes more than one tank) of between 4000 and 7500 liters (1,000 and 2,000 gallons) in size connected to an inlet wastewater pipe at one end and a septic drain field at the other.

In general, these pipe connections are made via a T pipe, which allows liquid entry and exit without disturbing any crust on the surface.

Today, the design of the tank usually incorporates two chambers (each of which is equipped with a manhole cover), which are separated by means of a dividing wall that has openings located about midway between the floor and roof of the tank.


Septic tank above ground.

Wastewater enters the first chamber of the tank, allowing solids to settle and scum to float. The settled solids are anaerobically digested, reducing the volume of solids. The liquid component flows through the dividing wall into the second chamber, where further settlement takes place, with the excess liquid then draining in a relatively clear condition from the outlet into the leach field, also referred to as a drain field or seepage field, depending upon locality.

The remaining impurities are trapped and eliminated in the soil, with the excess water eliminated through percolation into the soil (eventually returning to the groundwater), through evaporation, and by uptake through the root system of plants and eventual transpiration. A piping network, often laid in a stone-filled trench (see weeping tile), distributes the wastewater throughout the field with multiple drainage holes in the network. The size of the leach field is proportional to the volume of wastewater and inversely proportional to the porosity of the drainage field. The entire septic system can operate by gravity alone or, where topographic considerations require, with inclusion of a lift pump. Certain septic tank designs include siphons or other methods of increasing the volume and velocity of outflow to the drainage field. This helps to load all portions of the drainage pipe more evenly and extends the drainage field life by preventing premature clogging.

 


 


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